Cosmetic History Worldwide

Cosmetic history worldwide has gone through a sea of change over the past few centuries. Today the cosmetic industry is worth over $50 billion, but this was not always the case. Before we study more about the history of cosmetics, we need to search the origin of cosmetics. Cosmetics was not a business during its nascent stage and it was solely used to enhance the look of the facial skin. It all started during the 4th century BC when cosmetics and business were words from two different worlds.

If we look into the history of cosmetics then we find that the Egyptians were the precursors of cosmetic use. Here the women of the upper class used animal fat, scented oils and eye color to give a real ‘facelift’ to their Lipstick faces. During its initial years, cosmetics were restricted to the confines of a room where they were prepared from natural ingredients. Cosmetics had not yet found any commercial use though it was exchanged among women.

The western world also embraced it (though a little late) much to the dissatisfaction of the Church and Queen Victoria. The use of cosmetics here was more among the lower class women and this is what slowly gave rise to cosmetics being manufactured for sale among the common masses. The French were the first to manufacture cosmetics on a large scale with the use of new and improved methods. They replaced the dangerous ingredients like copper and lead with Zinc oxide and other harmless chemicals. This soon resulted in wide sales of cosmetics and women from the elite as well as lower classes started to use it for their facial beautification.

The history of cosmetics changed with the end of World War II and the industrial growth during the 1940’s, when cosmetics found acceptance among women from all corners of the world. With the advent of the electronic media like Television and Radio, things looked really sunny for the cosmetic industry as actresses wore cosmetic makeup that attracted the general masses – a huge boost to the sales figures. Soon more and more women turned it into a habit to wear cosmetic makeup for almost all occasions.

People, mostly associated with the cosmetic industry, wanted to manufacture healthier and better products because they did not treat this as a business but something that even had use in their homes. Technological advancements made it easier for the companies to try out different ingredients for their cosmetics and this has also provided a plethora of options in front of modern consumers. Cosmetic history worldwide is all about providing the right kinds of cosmetics to satiate the obsession to look beautiful and remain young..

Nowadays, the cosmetic industry is not only concentrating on cosmetics for women, but even providing the metro-sexual males a chance to improve their facial looks. Today, the world’s cosmetic industry faces a huge demand and a real challenge in producing good quality cosmetic products. It is still a highly lucrative business for new entrants, but the challenge now comes from clinical studies that show the existence of toxic ingredients that are currently used in the manufacture of cosmetic products. These ingredients, used over long periods of time, are now being considered harmful to one’s health. Therefore, the history of cosmetics today wills evolve into where the industry will go in the future with this new information that indicates the continuous use of these toxic ingredients could be harmful to one’s health.

The Advantages of Online Bets

Why should we bet online? Here is the answer to this question. In fact, here are some advantages regarding the online betting companies.

First of all, if you bet online, you don’t have to pay the fifteen per cent which you have to pay if you work with the regular betting companies. Apart from this, you have the advantage that you can bet 메이저놀이터 from home or you can choose any other location as long as you have an Internet connection, which is something you can’t do in the case of the other kind of betting companies.

Another thing would be that the online betting agencies never stop working, which also means that you never have to stop betting. This is definitely not something you can do if you work with the ordinary such companies. Also, the offer is a lot richer with an online company than it is with a regular one. There are a lot of options for any kind of event and you also have a wide range of events to choose from. The online companies ensure an excellent discretion and security, using different secured servers and different methods applied by the government.

In order to attract more clients, many such companies offer promotions and bonuses at your first deposit and your fidelity is rewarded with free bets and fidelity bonuses, which means that you can actually bet with their money. Yo can place live bets, while you watch the event on television and you can bet online. Also, there are many companies which stream the event your are interested in. Last but not least, you can also play poker, bingo and many more.

Online Casino Review

Diagram of Casino Titan Online Casino

This online gambling club offers their customers banking alternatives that are sans bother and made sure about. Customers may decide to make a store or withdrawal either by Visa, MasterCard, bank wire move or online arrangements including PaySolid, Neteller, MoneyBookers or more. Gambling club Titan invites USA players which numerous online club don’t acknowledge everybody. Moreover, the client service is amicable and accessible every minute of every day, the rewards are serious and the game assortment unrivaled.

Programming Platform

Titan gives their customers the choice to play immediately or download the gambling club programming. With moment play, the product is in Flash variant and you stream the club from the Internet. On the off chance that you decide to download the gambling club and introduce the 카지노사이트 product, it is free and gives you the full form of the club and game anteroom. Gambling club Titan is controlled by the all around regarded RTG (Real Time Gaming), considered a trusted and solid gaming stage inside the business. It is prescribed that you download the full gambling club programming right to your PC work area since it offers the entirety of the games and better quality gaming. The product is anything but difficult to explore and very easy to use.

Game Selection

The one extraordinary alternative of Titan is that it runs on Real Time Gaming. The gambling club includes more than 150+ of the most sultry games for you to browse. Play your exemplary openings machines or find a comfortable place to sit to our table games. There is each kind of gambling club game including roulette, keno, and then some! The designs are additionally first class! The 3D activity carries a practical vibe to the gambling club and the sound is fresh and clear.

Store, Withdrawal, Customer Service and Support

Client care: Titan offers day in and day out help benefits that take into account the entirety of their customers around the world. Regardless of what time or what hour, a gambling club delegate is accessible to help you. The Casino Titan client service is committed to their customers. They are accessible to talk with either by Live Chat, email, cost free phone or by fax.

Stores and Withdrawals: The one extraordinary advantage of saving money with Titan is that they give snappy and quick installment handling. Regardless of whether you are attempting to store or make a withdrawal, your cash is protected. In the event that you are a customer from the US, you may have encountered moderate pivot with your gambling club record and banking alternatives, however with Casino Titan, you can expect just the absolute best.

In general, you can expect the absolute best web based gaming experience when you play at Casino Titan. The antiquated Roman subject will have you on another experience to hold onto loves beyond anything you could ever imagine.

Club Titan is glad to acknowledge your online gambling club visa and mastercard, and furthermore acknowledges US players.

We cautiously survey each online gambling club. The procedure includes entering their site, downloading their gaming programming, keeping some cash and afterward playing softly over the entirety of the games. We will at that point interface with client support to ensure they are of the highest caliber. On the off chance that we presume any “difficulties” we will promptly quit looking into the online gambling club and go to the following one on our rundown. It takes a great deal to dazzle us and we completely should be intrigued for an online gambling club to hit our spotlight.

Online Casinos Vs. Real World Casinos – Which Is Right For Me?

Casinos have gained popularity wildly in recent years. More people are gambling, and more people are learning about new and exciting casino games. For someone who has minimal gambling experience, it may seem overwhelming trying to decide whether to play in real world casinos, or online casinos.  먹튀검증

One of the big differences is atmosphere. When you are playing in a real world casino, you are surrounded by many other players. The atmosphere is loud, bustling, and can be stressful for some. However, others thrive when they are face to face with their competition. In online casinos, the atmosphere is much different. You may be at your home, on your computer in your comfortable chair. Some players find this to be more relaxing, and so they are better able to focus on the game. Choosing the best atmosphere comes down to basic preferences.

The amount of money that can be spent is very different depending on the type of casino. Most real world casinos will involve using a substantial amount of money. Some casinos have certain amounts that you have to wager in order to play. Online casinos will often allow players to play for much less. There can also be a wider variety of priced games. Some of the more advanced players may opt for high stakes, while newer players can play for less money. This luxury is sometimes not given in real world casinos.

Convenience is also a major factor. If you happen to live in Atlantic City or Las Vegas, than real world casinos are readily available. However, if you live somewhere far away from gambling, then it can be very time consuming in order to go to a real world casino. Online casinos are available wherever you have a computer and an Internet connection. Many people like being able to log on and play for a little while before they leave for work. For vacationers that like to gamble, real world casinos can be very exciting.

Online casinos are also very helpful for players who have no experience with certain games. Many online casinos offer tutorials and detailed explanations that may not be found in a real world casino setting. It is important to note that many real world casino goers are very experienced and serious about their respective games. Someone new to casinos and those types of games may be overshadowed and overwhelmed by the more experienced players and the entire casino atmosphere.

Online casinos and real world casinos both have their positive and negative aspects. For newer players who are looking for ease of use and convenience, online casinos are a very practical choice. For more experienced players who gamble big and are willing to make the trip, real world casinos can be very enjoyable. It is also important to note that both types of casinos are not mutually exclusive. There are inexperienced players who start with online casinos and eventually move to real world casinos. At the s

Selling Old Gold Jewelry – How to Easily Sell Old Gold Jewelry For Cash

Lately, selling old gold jewelry has become quite an appealing idea. You may have accumulated a lot of gold jewelry that you don’t wear anymore.  Sell Us Your Jewelry

Selling Old Gold Jewelry

In such a case, it is better to sell your gold for cash, especially now when the whole of the world seems to be interested in buying gold for safe investment.

If you want to sell gold jewelry, in addition to checking the shops in your city, you should also contact the buyers online. Selling old gold jewelry to buyers online is a very good idea as most of them buy not only good jewelry which can be easily resold but also broken pieces of jewelry.

If you decide on selling old gold jewelry online, you get access to a larger number of buyers which in turn leads to competition and therefore, you may be able to find a buyer who is ready to pay a slightly higher price as compared to the jeweler near your house.

How Will Your Gold Be Shipped?

Before you sell you old gold jewelry online, you must take care of a few important formalities. For example, you should check about the insurance of the jewelry during shipment, the return of the jewelry in case you choose to not accept the offer and other similar things.

Further, look at your pieces and choose solid gold to be sold online as most of the buyers who buy old jewelry online do not pay for gemstones. In such a case, it is better to have the jewelry melted and sell the gold online while you can sell the gemstones to another jeweler.

Finally, check the market price of gold as this will give you an idea of what you should expect. Selling old gold jewelry can be a great way to make some extra money from something that is of no use to you anymore.

Varying Aspects of Swimming Pool Service

Should I get a professional company to maintain my swimming pool?

Finally, after all these years you bought a house with a swimming pool. You can see yourself now, everyday sunny summer day floating over the cool blue water sipping from your favorite beverage with a straw and waiting patiently for your skin to turn a deep bronze because of the constant sun. That may be what you are dreaming about but if you are like most of us you are going to realize that owning a swimming pool is going to come with a great deal of responsibility.

First off, pools require constant maintenance. You can never get ahead of schedule with maintaining a swimming pool. Wouldn’t it be nice if you could just dump a years’ worth of chemical into your pool on New Year’s Day and not have to worry about it again until the next year? Hey, it would be nice if you could drop a handful of chemical into your pool and not worry about it again until next month but unfortunately when it comes to swimming pool service you just can’t do that.

Your swimming pool needs to be constantly monitored. The chemical levels and water needs to be checked commonly, the equipment needs to be checked to make sure that it is running properly and
you need to regularly brush and clean your pool or it will get gross. Some of the things that will be required by your pool (at least weekly) are:

1. Chemical levels checked
2. Water quality checked
3. Pool equipment check
4. Regular cleaning and Brushing

If you fall behind in just one of them you can quickly find yourself falling behind in all of them. Brushing your pool with broken pumps and filters will do no good, properly functioning equipment with improper water chemistry will turn your pool into a swamp. With all of this responsibility come the time costs and the cost of chemical and occasional repairs. These costs can build up surprisingly quickly during the month.

Because of all these problems and costs many people are simply deciding that the best way to ensure a clear pool, and the cheapest way is to pay a professional to make it their problem.

A professional swimming pool technician should meet the following criteria:

1. Personable and easy to communicate with
2. High level of understanding regarding pool care
3. Ability to fix broken pool equipment
4. Dependable and shows up regularly
5. Stingy with your money (no unnecessary “repairs” or service)

Prices for full time residential pool service for a normal size pool vary depending on where you live. Prices can be anywhere from $90/month to over $200/month. Prices tend to get higher the more uncommon swimming pools are in a geographical area. Hot cities in the desert southwest, tend to be cheapest while prices in the north east portion of the country tend to be the highest.

Type in your city and “pool service” on the search engine of your choice to find companies that provide pool service where you live. Most companies will provide a free estimate over the phone on what it would cost to maintain your swimming pool.

We wish you the best of luck in finding the right service provider.

Author Todd M. Hallmen: Todd Hallmen has been in the swimming pool maintenance business for over 5 years. You can visit the websites of two of his partners at:

Linux Power Tools – Great Tools to Make System Administration Easy

World War II – Germany decided to attack Poland.
Poland had many great warriors. They all prepared to fight the Germans.
They were all ready with the best armor, the best and well trained
horses, and ofcourse the best weapons , swords , spears …. And
the Pols were brave and were ready to give their lives for their
country. Sadly they did just that… give their lives. The Germans
had tanks… It is very important to have the right weapons when one
goes for a war.

In the same way it is very important for system administrators to have
the right tools to to work smart. Linux is a great desktop OS for
developers as well as system
administrators. Let us take a look at some of the utilities which makes
this a great environment for system administrators and developers. Most
of the content below is taken from the home pages of these apps and the
I make no claims on the originality. My aim is to introduce the reader
to the
wonderful tools that are available in a Linux/BSD desktop environment.


Let’s start from what most people think Linux is all about – a text
based shell. Konsole is what
is known as an X terminal emulator, often referred to as a terminal or
a shell. It gives you the equivalent of an old-fashioned text screen on
your desktop, but one which can easily share the screen with your
graphical applications. What makes Konsole special?
Konsole’s advanced features include simple configuration and the
ability to use multiple terminal shells in a single window, making for
a less cluttered desktop. Konsole is also available as kpart and
can thus be easily embedded in other applications, like practiced by
Kate and Konqueror.

As most system administrators need log into servers on a regular basis
the konsole gives them a benefit over the Windoze command prompt. In
windows one needs to use a program like putty to log in using SSH. Also
as linux is the desktop OS the techs can use the man pages on the local

One can also try out the various commands locally. Consider a simple

Is it

$ ln sourcefile destinationfile

or is it

$ ln destinationfile sourcefile

Such things can be easily found out locally without carrying out
experiments on the server. Many techs believe that servers are places
where they can experiment. However, such experiments can lead to major
losses to the customers due to one small error. A system administrator
must understand that people have immense faith in them when they give
their entire data to them and they cannot risk carrying out simple
experiments on servers.

Some screenshots of the konsole can be seen at the konsole site

Personal Information Manager / Groupware

There are two popular choices here. Evolution
from Novel
and the Kontact
from KDE. Both these an email client, calendaring, meeting
scheduling, a task list, contact management and syncing functionality.
Kontact is essentially the regular KDE PIM components which have been
put in together i.e. kmail, korganizer, knotes etc.. It is very a very
neat package and is stable and light. Both these are very
functional and can connect to many groupware servers.


Klipper is the KDE clipboard utility. It stores clipboard history

What Size Grant to Ask For From a Grant Making Foundation

After you spend hours upon hours researching thousands of foundations, you find some that are a good fit for your organization. But how do you know how much funding to request from this foundation?

As you spend more time researching a foundation you will develop a better understanding of how much to ask for. When you are sending your first proposal to a foundation you do not want to ask for too much money, because foundations normally give larger awards to organizations they have built a relationship with over the years. You also don’t want to ask for too little money, as you may deprive your organization of potential funding.

Developing relationships is an important building block as is the case in the rest of the Fundraising field. You can call the contact person for the foundation and talk to them about your organization and if it is something that interests them. If the conversation goes well, you can also ask them how much they normally give to an organization who is applying for the first time. They will normally be up-front and provide you with either an amount or a range.

Of course some foundations will not have any phone numbers listed for contact information, and you will need to determine how much you are going to request from the foundation by making an informed decision. A very good way to reach an informed decision is to analyze the available data.

Foundation Directory Online

A good place to obtain information on foundations is on the Foundation Directory Online website – which is run by the Foundation Center. The Foundation Directory Online is a subscription based program with the Professional version priced at $1,295 per year. This provides a good review on the financial data for the foundation. They will list how many grants and much money was awarded for that particular year, and they will provide the highest and lowest amount awarded. Sometimes they will give information on the average award size. For an example we will use the following financial section posted for an organization in the Foundation Directory.

Financial data: (yr. ended 12/31/03): Assets, $115,944,286 (M); expenditures, $6,831,492; total giving, $5,611,933; qualifying distributions, $6,063,290; giving activities include $5,611,933 for 172 grants (high: $500,000; low: $5,000; average: $10,000-$100,000).

The information listed above that we took from the Foundation Directory is a valuable tool to aid us with our process of determining of how much to ask for. Through this information we can decipher how much money they awarded in 2003 ($5.6M) through 172 grants. The lowest grant was $5,000 and the highest was $500,000, with the average range between $10,000 and $100,000.

Analyze the Data

Based on the earlier information on foundations providing larger sized grants to organizations they have built relationships with, we know it is not advisable to ask for $500,000 from this particular foundation. Normally it is not advisable to request an amount in the higher end of their average range. We could request a grant between $5,000 (their lowest grant) and $50,000. I picked $50,000 because it is just below the middle of their average range of $10,000 and $100,000, which should have a pretty good chance of being funded. Also, be mindful of your budget, as you do not want to ask for more than 25% of your budget. For an even more informed decision you can include an additional step.


This additional step is to check the foundations information on Guidestar. Guidestar also requires a subscription to view their content. Guidestar contains the IRS Form 990, which is an annual reporting return that federally tax-exempt organizations must file with the IRS. It provides information on the filing organization’s mission, programs, and finances. It also includes who they awarded grants to and the amount of each award. Look through the Form 990 from the latest year listed and create a tally sheet broken down into financial ranges (i.e. $5,000-$19,999; $20,000- $29,999; etc.) Then tally how many grants were awarded in each range. By doing this you will discover that they awarded more grants in one range of proposals, between $30,000 and $39,999 than

Leak Detection

Leak detection can be a tricky business unless you really know what you are doing and have the right experience.  Top Sydney Plumbers

Roof Leaks

The place to start looking for roof leaks is not on top of the roof. Rather the place to start is inside the roof. Get up in the roof and look for any evidence of water damage or staining. Water will generally fall straight down due to gravity or run along the underside of tiles and beams. Cracks in tiles can also be spotted by looking for sunlight shining through.

Ill fitting flashing on the top side of the roof can be another source of leakage in a roof.

One of the most common causes of water getting into the roof space is through gutters that are clogged with leaves and debris. The water builds up and then flows over into the roof often causing significant damage.

Pipe Leaks

Leaking water pipes are not just a waste of environmental resources they are also a waste of your hard earned money. It may only be a drip but a continual drip can add significantly to your annual water bill.

Gas Leaks

Leaking gas pipes or fixtures can pose a very real hazard and risk of significant damage to your home if not addressed. Gas is obviously highly combustible and if the concentration of gas builds up in a confined space where an ignition source or spark is present disaster can be the result. Gas leaks are serious and should be dealt with by an experienced gas installation plumber straight away.

Pool Leaks

An easy way to see if your pool is leaking is to mark the current level of the pool water. Look again after 24 hours and compare the water level with the mark that you made the day before. A difference could mean a leak. A plumber that specialises in pool leak detection can help you fins such a leak fast.


Leak detection is a vital aspect of your home or commercial installation’s regular maintenance program. Ignoring this important task will be to your detriment. Addressing problems early, before significant damage is done, is the best way to save money and inconvenience. The ability to detect leaks fast is quite a specialised skill that not all plu

Tips to Save Money On Auto Parts

Buy OEM parts

It is simply not true that OEM parts are always more expensive than aftermarket parts. Remember that cheap parts are usually cheap for a reason, so if an OEM part is more expensive than an aftermarket part, the higher price serves to remove the reasons why the aftermarket part is cheaper.

These days, there is no telling where any given aftermarket part was made, or even who made it. The global parts market is flooded with cheap, substandard garbage that does not conform to any accepted safety and quality standards, which in practical terms, means that you could be endangering the lives of your family by refusing to pay “exorbitant” prices for safety critical parts at the dealer.

Moreover, if an OEM part fails, you know who to talk to about it, which is often not the case with aftermarket parts. The result of this is that you often have no recourse, and you simply have to buy another part at a different auto parts store, hoping it won’t fail again within a few days. Thus, by occasionally paying more for an OEM part, you can save a lot of money, time, and aggravation in the long run.

Compare prices

If you do choose to go with aftermarket parts, despite the risk of receiving substandard auto parts, you can often realize substantial savings by shopping around. However, when you do shop around, you must compare prices for the same brand.

If you don’t know your way around the parts jungle, it is easy to fall prey to unscrupulous dealers who do not have your best interests at heart. Reputable auto part manufacturers will always brand their products, so stick to brands you know and trust: auto parts that come in unbranded white boxes (or in plain plastic bags) may be cheap, but you just don’t know what you are buying.

“Cheap” never translates into “good quality”, which means that by the time you had replaced an aftermarket auto part of uncertain provenance for the third time, you’ve probably spent more money than you would have done had you bought the part from the dealer in the first place.

used auto parts

Buy used auto parts

We are not suggesting that you should always buy used parts, but where used parts do not pose a safety risk, such as trim panels, mirrors, body parts/panels, and the like, you can often save substantial amounts of money. Moreover, by shopping around and comparing prices at a few junk yards, you can often negotiate a price that will make you come back for more.

Buy refurbished parts

Major auto parts like alternators, drive shafts, and transmissions are always expensive when you buy them new, but refurnished parts can be a viable alternative that can save you substantial amounts of money. However, not all refurbished parts are rebuilt to OEM standards, so if you want to take this route, be sure to investigate the company that does the refurbishing.

Remember that no refurbished auto part ever comes with a warranty that matches the warranty of a new part, but the warranty should offer at least two thirds of what a “new” warranty offers. Nonetheless, a warranty means nothing if it is not backed up by a solid history of superior after sales service, so be sure to check out the supplier’s record with regard to after sales service.